Themes in Modern European History 1780-1830 (Themes in Modern European History Series)

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Because contemporaries often used their understanding of the French Revolution of as a gauge by which to measure him, it was often in his interest to pose either as the champion of the Revolution, or the man who had ended it. Because the Revolution, then as now, stood for many different things, determining his precise relation to it was never easy.

Moreover, Bonaparte was nothing if not an opportunist; he altered his policies according to circumstance and struck the pose that best suited these shifts. Thus if the Revolution was by no means uniform, neither was Bonapartism. Beyond the usefulness of inclusion in a series of works on major themes in European history, one good answer is probably the most familiar - historical investigation continues to evolve.

Not only has there been a plethora of recent work on the meaning of the Revolution, the Napoleonic era has also undergone reinterpretation. The change of government in was caused by a power vacuum created when King Christian VII took ill, and power shifted to the crown prince who later became King Frederik VI and reform-oriented landowners.

In contrast to Old Regime France, agricultural reform was intensified in Denmark, serfdom was abolished and civil rights were extended to the peasants, the finances of the Danish state were healthy, and there were no external or internal crises. That is, reform was gradual and the regime itself carried out agrarian reforms that had the effect of weakening absolutism by creating a class of independent peasant freeholders.

Much of the initiative came from well-organized liberals who directed political change in the first half of the 19th century. In Sweden, King Gustav III reigned —92 was an enlightened despot, who weakened the nobility and promoted numerous major social reforms.

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He felt the Swedish monarchy could survive and flourish by achieving a coalition with the newly emerged middle classes against the nobility. Nevertheless, he decided to promote additional antifeudal reforms to strengthen his hand among the middle classes. Under King Gustav IV Adolf , Sweden joined various coalitions against Napoleon, but was badly defeated and lost much of its territory, especially Finland and Pomerania. The king was overthrown by the army, which in decided to bring in one of Napoleon's marshals, Bernadotte , as the heir apparent and army commander.

He had a Jacobin background and was well-grounded in revolutionary principles, but put Sweden in the coalition that opposed Napoleon. The French Revolution fished widespread American support in its early phase, but when the king was executed it polarized American opinion and played a major role in shaping American politics. In , the first "Democratic societies" were formed. They supported the French Revolution in the wake of the execution of the king.

The word "democrat" was proposed by French Ambassador Citizen Genet for the societies, which he was secretly subsidizing. The emerging Federalists led by Alexander Hamilton began to ridicule the supporters of Thomas Jefferson as "democrats". Genet now began mobilizing American voters using French money, for which he was expelled by President Washington.

After President Washington denounced the societies as unrepublican, they faded away.

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Themes in Modern European History Series

In , as war broke out in Europe, the Jeffersonian Republican Party favored France and pointed to the treaty that was still in effect. Washington and his unanimous cabinet including Jefferson decided the treaty did not bind the U. Jefferson became president in , but was hostile to Napoleon as a dictator and emperor.

Nevertheless, he did seize the opportunity to purchase Louisiana in The broad similarities but different experiences between the French and American revolutions lead to a certain kinship between France and the United States, with both countries seeing themselves as pioneers of liberty and promoting republican ideals. The call for modification of society was influenced by the revolution in France, and once the hope for change found a place in the hearts of the Haitian people, there was no stopping the radical reformation that was occurring.

On April 4, , The French National Assembly granted freedom to slaves in Haiti [50] and the revolution culminated in ; Haiti was an independent nation solely of freed peoples. France's transformation was most influential in Europe, and Haiti's influence spanned across every location that continued to practice slavery. John E. Baur honors Haiti as home of the most influential Revolution in history. As early as , the term "liberal" was coined in Spanish politics to indicate supporters of the French Revolution.

This usage passed to Latin America and animated the independence movement against Spain. In the nineteenth century "Liberalism" was the dominant element in Latin American political thought. The Latin American political culture oscillated between two opposite poles: the traditional , as based on highly specific personal and family ties to kin groups, communities, and religious identity; and the modern , based on impersonal ideals of individualism, equality, legal rights, and secularism or anti-clericalism.

Madero 's democratic movement leading to the Revolution of The impact of the French Revolution on the Middle East came in terms of the political and military impact of Napoleon's invasion; and in the eventual influence of revolutionary and liberal ideas and revolutionary movements or rebellions. In terms of Napoleon's invasion in , the response by Ottoman officials was highly negative. They warned that traditional religion would be overthrown. Long-standing Ottoman friendship with France ended.

Themes in Modern European History Series

Sultan Selim III immediately realized how far behind his empire was, and started to modernize both his army and his governmental system. In Egypt itself, the ruling elite of Mamluks was permanently displaced, speeding the reforms. In intellectual terms, the immediate impact of the French Revolutionary ideas was nearly invisible, but there was a long-range influence on liberal ideas and the ideal of legal equality, as well as the notion of opposition to a tyrannical government.

In this regard, the French Revolution brought such influential themes as constitutionalism, parliamentarianism, individual liberty, legal equality, and the sense of ethnic nationalism. These came to fruition about From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. However, Frederick Artz emphasizes the benefits the Italians gained from the French Revolution: For nearly two decades the Italians had the excellent codes of law, a fair system of taxation, a better economic situation, and more religious and intellectual toleration than they had known for centuries Everywhere old physical, economic, and intellectual barriers had been thrown down and the Italians had begun to be aware of a common nationality.

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Main article: French emigration — Main article: Duchy of Warsaw. Main article: Helvetic Republic. Main article: Batavian Republic. Frey and Marsha L. Frey, The French Revolution , Foreword. Global Ramifications of the American Revolution.

Absolute Monarchy: Crash Course European History #13

Cambridge UP. Thompson, Robespierre and the French Revolution , p. The Coming of the French Revolution. Princeton UP. Aulard in Arthur Tilley, ed. Modern France.


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A Companion to French Studies. Nationalism in the Age of the French Revolution. SUNY Press.

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