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Fondazione Giorgio e Isa de Chirico |
The sentence contains offensive content. Cancel Submit. Your feedback will be reviewed. Translation of metafisica — Italian—English dictionary.
Synonym ontologia. Though the mannequin is faceless and has no body, its profession as a painter and unmediated relationship with its art is clearly presented. Beyond that, the seemingly decapitated head is unable to take up the active role it had been granted, as it is neither painting nor mediating between the viewer and a work of art. While Morandi's earlier still lifes gave the mannequin active roles, this Still Life questions them; instead, it presents the mannequin as a misplaced object, lost within a crowded metaphysical piazza it is unable to represent. More importantly, the depiction of this mannequin head heralded Morandi's abandonment of the metaphysical style, as its passive pose refers to Morandi's eventual decision to move beyond the enigma.
The Reception of the Metaphysical School in Italy, Morandi's abandonment of the metaphysical style must be seen in light of the widespread disdain towards Futurism and the Metaphysical School which prevailed in Italy between World War I and the rise of Fascism.
Eventually, the Italian scene became more concerned with creating art with domestic roots rather than with exploring advanced European art. Soffici became one of the leaders of this movement in , as his vocal disavowal of his earlier avant-gardism, which he dismissed, and a youthful escapade to Paris, became the clarion call for an entire generation of artists and critics.
As early as and certainly by , the term metafisico was used pejoratively in Italy, and de Chirico and his early production received the brunt of these insults. In particular, he was accused of being overly "cerebral" and "intellectual" due to his enigmatic visions. The Metaphysical School's foreign roots made it particularly vulnerable to post-war nationalism, since critics were clamoring for modern painting that could be easily read as Italian.
Unfortunately for the Metaphysical School, the very exhibitions which sought to introduce it to Roman audiences provoked an adverse critical reac-tion.
Interestingly enough, the school's metaphysical scenes were dismissed as mere theater and attacked as artificial sceneries, thus associating them with set design rather than the fine arts. The final blow to the Metaphysical School was delivered by Roberto Lon-ghi's review of de Chirico's one-man show in , also held in Rome, which featured a great portion of his metaphysical production.
Thus, Longhi not only mocked de Chirico's work but also questioned his status as a fine artist. This negative critical reception confirms that after World War I, Italy was gradually closing itself off to advanced art, as the Metaphysical School was attacked due to its perceived foreign provenance, its uncanny subjects, and its painters' abilities and character.
Moreover, it mirrored Longhi's own rejection of Futurism, which he had done much to promote before World War I. Ironically, the metaphysical artists themselves actively contributed to this climate of artistic nationalism. In "Il ritorno al mestiere," de Chirico recommended studying the Old Masters in order to rediscover their pictorial techniques, offering them as an antidote to the avant-garde's visual and technical hubris. Tellingly, this article ended with the Latin phrase "pictor classicus sum," or "I am a classical painter.
"metafísica" in English
Whereas his previous self-portrait emphasized his interest in the enigma and his own status as a philosopher-painter akin to Nietzsche, the newer self-portrait positions the metafisica within an Italian setting. The figure's pose is also different from the earlier self-portrait; in the painting from , de Chirico depicts himself engrossed in thought and removed from the viewer, while the later representation gazes directly at the viewer and features the artist's hand, an index of his craft, in a prominent position.
Thus, his interest in the enigma, or vision that only a metaphysical artist could see, was replaced by works seeking to show that his metaphysical paintings were rooted in Italian values and emphasized his training as a painter. Thus, de Chirico reinforced the nationalist attitudes which had led to the previous condemnation of his work, as he attempted to dispel any questions as to the domestic provenance of the metaphysical aesthetic while stressing his commitment to it. In spite of all his efforts, de Chirico's campaign to consolidate the Metaphysical School as a leading movement in Italy during the early s was unsuccessful, and he moved back to Paris in The rise of Fascism had led to the creation of groups such as the classically oriented Novecento and the regionalist Strapaese, which espoused principles such as order, hierarchy, and plastic values and which featured clearly legible Italian sources.
Though the artist continued to promote his own work in Italy, he no longer strove to promote the school. De Chirico's works were exhibited in several editions of the Biennale and in the Quadriennale, a national exhibition created after the rise of Fascism. Beyond that, despite completing a large mural for the regime in , his art became less visible than that of painters closer to the regime, such as Mario Sironi. Given that de Chirico had revised his own identity as an intellectual who had access to enigmas by representing himself as both metaphysical and Italian, it is not surprising that Morandi began turning to regionalism in , a style better suited to satisfying the demands for Italian values.
Moving away from the Metaphysical School. Critics who were disdainful of the Metaphysical School's foreign roots and strange subjects attempted to minimize Morandi's status as a metafisico even as the artist was developing this aesthetic. The Bolognese magazine La Raccolta published an article by Raffaello Franchi which described Morandi's metaphysical works as being "dominated by the manual skill and the sensibility of a painter, not of a metafisico" 35 This passage drew an important distinction between a painter and a metafisico, as Longhi had in his review of de Chirico's one-man show, and dismissed the Metaphysical School as foreign.
Franchi rejected the school's "metaphysical trampolines" and Nordic sources, since he saw them as anathema to the natural lyricism allegedly found in Italian art. His emphasis in noting that Morandi was not a metaphysical painter responded to the growing fears regarding the decadence of Italian culture, and he proposed Morandi as a cure for Italian art, claiming that his works recalled the "piacere della rinascita. While critics sought to interpret Morandi in light of the Italian tradition, the artist began to look at domestic sources as well.
The first phase of Morandi's reconsideration of his early self-representation as a metaphysical painter developed through a study of Piero della Francesca, whose work he most closely approximated in a Still Life Vit. Piero had been receiving favorable critical attention, which culminated in Longhi's seminal book, a revision of his first essay on the painter.
The Still Life from Vit. This work uses Piero's warm, pastel-like palette and replicates his treatment of the pictorial matter, as it is similar to the opaque surfaces typical of his frescoes and paintings. The volumetric rendition in Morandi's Still Life recalls that of Piero's Baptism of Christ, especially with respect to the latter's treatment of the tree and the shading and coloring of Christ's body.
Morandi's decision to mimic Piero's shading and his frescoes' warm, matte finish superseded the smoother surfaces and sharp outlines present in his earlier works. Here, the mannequin has been replaced by the clay jug on the right, while its round surface and upright position recalls that of the mannequin's head. The white bottle is no longer the subject of the mannequin's composition; its purpose is to depict space due to its placement as a receding diagonal, mimicking the broken lances in the foreground of Paolo Uccello's Battle of San Romano. Despite using warmer colors and eliminating the mannequin, Morandi's composition retains some of the tension characteristic of his previous still lifes, as the objects are detached from one another and the table top's angle seems to push them forward.
Such an important departure from the previous still lifes is rooted in its similarity with Piero's works, reflecting Morandi's own development of his craft as well. In fact, the artist expressed an interest in finding colors that could mimic Renaissance frescoes.
De Chirico, who hailed Morandi as a metaphysical painter as late as , also referred to him as an artisan who mixed his own colors.
However, while de Chirico continued to paint self-portraits, Mo-randi erased his own presence from the canvas. His renewed interest in this figure resurfaced demonstrably as early as in a letter to Giuseppe Raimondi. Still Life , Vit.
http://lauren.reclaim.hosting/el-valle-del-silencio.php Instead, this work proposes other values, as it privileges the imitation, both compositional and technical, of works by painters whose careers exemplified what many critics demanded from Italian art, namely, order, sobriety, and plasticity. Morandi as a Regionalist Painter. While there is no clear explanation within Morandi's letters to this effect, it seems evident that to avoid being negatively associated with the Metaphysical School, he positioned himself as a painter who had overcome such a style, relegating it to an experimental phase.
Morandi's Still Life from Vit. In several works created after , Morandi replaced de Chirico with their contemporary Soffici, emulating the latter both stylistically and in terms of his self-presentation as an Italian artist. Specifically, the new, regionalist Morandi responded to Soffici's urgent call towards tradition, rusticity and sincerity in In , Soffici published a series of articles in his magazine Rete Mediterranea dismissing his avant-garde experiments as a momentary interruption of his commitment to the creation of a modern Italian style inspired by the Tuscan landscape and its people.
Although he did not mention de Chirico or the Metaphysical School in this article, it would be clear to fellow critics and artists that Soffici was in fact proposing an alternative to the latter's cerebral art and persona. Soffici had never claimed to represent enigmas, but his study of advanced French painting had to be atoned for, and it was a lesson younger artists such as Morandi monitored attentively. A retrospective exhibition of Soffici's works complemented Rete Mediterranean attempt to characterize the artist as a changed man.
This exhibit, held in Florence in , featured II7 works executed between and and was held at the "Sala di esposizioni florentine," in the Palazzo Corsi now Palazzo Horne. Originally built in the thirteenth century, the Palazzo Corsi was remodeled between I and I, and this grand architectural venue bestowed a sense of permanence to Soffici's modern depictions of Tuscan landscapes.
Tellingly, these works were set aside in order to atone for Sof-fici's past sins and as warnings for younger artists still attracted to Parisian art and Bohemianism. Soffici's exhibition was reviewed positively by Ugo Ojetti, one of the leading conservative critics the artist had scorned in the past. Ojetti dismissed Soffici's cubo-futurism as a mere demonstration of theses, highlighting Soffici's Tuscan roots instead: "Logical and Tuscan Soffici was born in a peasant family, in the Florentine countryside, in Rignano sull'Arno , he detests confusion, fog..
Matteo Marangoni, an ispettore at the Uffizi writing for Valori Plastici, described Soffici's avant-gardism as a parenthesis unrelated to "[his] more genuine and essential artistic qualities. Additionally, the critics focused on values that opposed those of metaphysical painting and its enigmas, meaning again Soffici's "genuine" qualities and "peasant origins. Morandi had already followed in Soffici's footsteps by abandoning the metaphysical style in , and by had developed a thoroughly regionalist style in his still lifes and landscapes Vit.
These show uncomplicated Bolognese interiors and panoramas, whose warm colors and visible brushstrokes departed from his metaphysical works' cool, moody palette and smooth surfaces. The still life veers from Morandi's complex meditations on the genre; it excluded the mannequin's head, and instead, presented objects within an environment that evokes the artist's provincial household. Indeed, the artist not only returned to a more traditional conception of the genre, but also included common objects that he or his family members might have used.
The pitcher, bottles, clay vessels and ink bottle are old objects which look as if they have been used and put casually aside.
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Unlike the pristine white bottle in the earlier piece, they are not meant to be studied or measured by a mannequin. Instead of depicting smooth objects and using a virtually monochromatic palette, this still life's visible brushstrokes and warm colors stand apart from any parallel reality Morandi portrayed from to and reference Bolognese middle class life.
Morandi's return to landscape painting in finalized his abandonment of the Metaphysical School since it distanced him even further from the artificial world of the artist's studio. Morandi's Landscape ventures into the Emilian countryside and its rich, warm tones. Although the Still Life had left behind Morandi's tense metaphysical compositions in favor of a casually ordered arrangement, this landscape seemingly rejects any sort of compositional order in favor of painting based on observation from life. Abandoning his earlier works and their enigmas, this landscape, whether faithful or not, portrays the Emilian countryside as a peaceful site, which Strapaese 's journals presented as the true Italy.
Morandi's etchings and paintings dating from the mid s to the mid s articulate a regionalist aesthetic that greatly appealed to Mino Maccari and Leo Longanesi.